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SOLAS: Everything about Fire Fighting and Fire Prevention on Board the Ship or Vessel (page 2)
Published By mantis36 on 2012-03-28 173 Views

The 3 Elements of Fire (fuel, heat, and oxygen):

Is any combustible substances which will burn when heated to its ignition temperature or made hot enough to burn with the presence of O2.

The three forms of fuel are solid, liquid, and gas.
Solid such as wood, paper, or mattress
Liquid such as gasoline or any other types of petroleum products.
Gas such as acetylene and or LPG

The three ignition of heat are Flash Point, Ignition Point, and Fire

Flash Point is the temperature of the substance at which it will give off vapours sufficient to form an ignitable mixture.
Ignition Point (Ignition Temperature) is the temperature at which the vapour being off by a substance will ignite spontaneously in the air. Fire is a substance lowest temperature and which vapour being giving off by a material can be ignited and continue to burn.

The Three Heat Transfer is the Radiation, Conduction, and Convection.
Radiation is an emission of rays in all direction through all medium. Conduction is a heat transfer through direct contact. And Convection is a heat transfer when heated particles of gasses goes up.

Comes from the air we breath, and air consist of 21 percent oxygen and 79 percent nitrogen and other elements.
If oxygen can be dilated below 12 or 15 percent, fire will be extinguished.

Class “A” Fire
Characteristics are solid material fire, deep seated fire, and leaves ash or embers (paper, wood, and cloth).
The Extinguishing Agents are water and CO2
Water in solid stream high or low velocity fog.
CO2 if small cases or small spaces which can be flooded.

Class “B” Fire
Characteristics are flammable liquid fire, surface burning and leaves carbon (fuel, oil, paints, etc.)
The Extinguishing Agents are foam, or CO2
Foam in either mechanical or chemical
CO2 in small spaces which can be flooded.

Class “C” Fire
Characteristics are electrical fire (transmitter, electronic equipments, motors and generators)
The Extinguishing Agents are CO2, and PKP
CO2 as Carbon Dioxide, a non-conductor of electricity
PKP but may cause damage to electrical equipments.

In case of electrical fire, the danger of electricity should be eliminated first when handling this case of fire.
De-energize the circuit before progress is made to fight the fire.
Do not attempt to use water in combating this kind of fire to avoid danger of electrocution.

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Class “D” Fire
Characteristics are metals or special hazard fire.

Most of them are metallic substances or in form.
Some are generate their own oxygen while it is burning. It does not react to common fire fighting techniques and procedures (magnesium, thermites, sodium, and phosphorous).

The Extinguishing Agents are magnesium, thermite, sodium and phosphorous.
Magnesium as dry sand and powder graphite.
Thermite – no known extinguishing or jettison it overboard or keep it moving with solid water until burnout.
Sodium – dry soda ash, sodium chloride or salt, sand, earth or PKP. Do not use water on sodium fire because sodium decompose in water and liberate hydrogen or create heat which will cause explosion.
Phosporous – no known extinguishing agent (jettison or bury it).

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